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(1) 報道性論文摘要(informative abstract)：也常稱作信息性摘要或資料性摘要，其特點是全面、簡要地概括論文的目的、方法、主要數據和結論。通常,這種摘要可以部分地取代閱讀全文。
(2) 指示性論文摘要(indicative abstract)：也常稱為說明性摘要、描述性摘要(descriptive abstract)或論點摘要(topic abstract)，一般隻用二三句話概括論文的主題，而不涉及論據和結論，多用於綜述、會議報告等。該類摘要可用於幫助潛在的讀者來決定是否需要閱讀全文。
(3) 報道-指示性論文摘要(informative- indicative abstract)：以報道性摘要的形式表述一次文獻中的信息價值較高的部分，以指示性摘要的形式表述其余部分。
傳統的摘要多為一段式，在內容上大致包括引言(Introduction)，材料與方法(Materials and Methods)，結果(Results)和討論(Discussion)等主要方面，即IMRAD((Introduction，Methods，Results and Discussion)結構的寫作模式。
編修過程範例 顯示更改（changes tracked）的版本
論文摘要 修過程後 （proofread）的版本
- The abstract is an important component of your thesis. Presented at the beginning of the thesis, it is likely the first substantive description of your work read by an external examiner. You should view it as an opportunity to set accurate expectations.
- The abstract is a summary of the whole thesis. It presents all the major elements of your work in a highly condensed form.
- An abstract often functions, together with the thesis title, as a stand-alone text. Abstracts appear, absent the full text of the thesis, in bibliographic indexes such as PsycInfo. They may also be presented in announcements of the thesis examination. Most readers who encounter your abstract in a bibliographic database or receive an email announcing your research presentation will never retrieve the full text or attend the presentation.
- An abstract is not merely an introduction in the sense of a preface, preamble, or advance organizer that prepares the reader for the thesis. In addition to that function, it must be capable of substituting for the whole thesis when there is insufficient time and space for the full text.
Abstracts give readers a chance to decide whether the work is of interest for them.
The actual process of writing an abstract will force you to justify and clearly state your aims, to show how your methodology fits the aims, to highlight the major findings and to determine the significance of what you have done. The beauty of it is that you can talk about this in very short paragraphs and see if the whole works.
The final, finished abstract has to be as good as you can make it. It is the first thing your reader will turn to and therefore controls what the first impression of your work will be.